Hiroto

Thursday, June 22, 2006

Air Pollution (Abstract)

Recently, the air pollution problem has become a serious problem in the world as we have developed our technologies. There are a lot of people who develop diseases like cancer, heart disease, pneumonia and premature death because of the emission from factories, buildings and vehicles. Therefore, we need to improve the air pollution problem and we have to consider air pollution as an extremely serious problem.

Air Pollution

I’m interested in the air pollution problem in Los Angeles, CA, because we have a lot of environmental problems caused by air pollution. Presently, there are many other environmental problems in the world, for example, global warming, desertification, ozone depletion, etc. Air pollution remains as one of the biggest environmental problems throughout the world. It can be the cause of diseases like cancer or environmental problems like global warming. Actually, human products from factories, vehicles and buildings produce exhaust fumes and also produce microscopic particles which are known causes of diseases like cancer, heart disease, pneumonia and premature death (Danelski, 2006). We have to consider the air pollutants, and we need to improve the emission control systems of factories that emit the gas that produces air pollution to solve the problem. According to Gwen Williams, an exponent of Muskegon Family Care, patients who develop respiratory disease are really high around these factories, not only the people who live near the factories but also the people who live far from the factories (Prichard, 2005). This is proof that the gas of air pollutants is easily spread. Nowadays, our air has become polluted as we developed our technologies to make our lives more convenient. Surely, living standards of our lives have improved and are much better than during the past. However, the environment has been certainly destroyed with these improvements. Therefore we need to improve the air pollution problem and we have to consider air pollution as an extremely serious problem.

First, I need to introduce the present condition of the environment caused by air pollution. According to the website, Zero Air Pollution, the people who live in Los Angeles don’t care about neighboring activities, until they notice that they are in trouble or in a terrible situation. There have been considerable damages to our health and to the environment of the Earth before really understand the facts. Presenter, we should understand the condition of the air more to improve the air pollution problem in the future. We can easily see the chimnies of factories is emitting clouds of smoke that look bad for our health. In Los Angeles, patients who have respiratory diseases, such as lung cancer and asthma, are increasing. Also, the toxic gas can be related to diseases which do not seem to be connected to emissions, like heart disease. The small particles can go through deeply into lung tissue, and these particles are able to enter the bloodstream. Then the poisonous atoms permeate our whole body through the bloodstream. Today, the emission from human productions is more common in our lives, however, it is a very dangerous and harmful thing to us. Some research show that breathing emissions from vehicles and factories makes our life expectancy shorter. The risk of cancer is much higher if you usually act or live near the resources of harmful gas, such as high ways, that are roads which are often jammed with traffic. The people who live near these areas have similar damages to their body as a smoker world, even if they don’t smoke a bit (Coaltion for Clean Air Headquarters, 2006). Actually, there are really serious health damages due to air pollution throughout the world. 310,000 people die per year in Europe, and also there are between 50,000 and 100,000 who die annually in the U.S because of air pollution. This number of the dead is more than the people who die by car accidents (Wikipedia, 2006). Also, many forests around the country or city which have developed industries die due to acid rain. Thus, air pollution produces a lot of negative results, there are no advantages for humans or the environment of the Earth. We have to know the facts about air pollution and understand that it is really serious problem. It is harmful and dangerous even though it is a natural process that human products emit toxic gas.

Second, I will discuss the causes of air pollution. We often think all of human productions can be causes of air pollution. Of course, vehicles are one of the biggest causes of air pollution. If I ask someone, “What is the cause of air pollution?” almost any person might answer “vehicles.” Nowadays, transportation systems, such as cars, trucks, trains, ships and airplanes, are more common in the world. These systems have been developed rapidly, and they make our life more convenient. We use them wherever we go, so we can’t live or survive in this mobile society without these systems. On the other hand, the transportation systems have a bad influence on our body and the environment. All of them emit abundant toxic gas. However, there are also other causes of air pollution. First, factories are one of them. When we make items like vehicles in a factory, we have to emit harmful gas. The emission from factories is easy to spread out to neighbors and the toxic gas floats in the atmosphere for a long time. The gas contains minute particles, so it is very light and ethereal (Zero Air Pollution Los Angeles, 2003). Therefore, our body and the environment is affected by the harmful gas for a considerable time without knowing. Second, power plants are also air pollutant sources. Power plants are one of the most important things to us. We have to make energy to live and work, so these plants exist wherever we live. These plants burn massive natural resources, such as oil, coal and wood, and they also emit gas like carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide as secondary products of combustion (Wikipedia, 2006). The buildings where we work and live are also one cause of air pollution. Surprisingly, we emit a large percentage of gas when we use electrical appliances such as air conditioners, refrigerators, etc. Therefore, buildings can be the biggest source of air pollution in urban cities such as Los Angeles, New York, Chicago, Tokyo and Seoul which have a great number of high buildings. These air toxics and compounds can be the cause of global warming. Thus, we pollute air wherever and whenever we work and live, and we have a lot of causes of air pollution and disease around us. We need to be conscious that we always the contaminate atmosphere, and our body and environment is always damaged by our own behavior.

Third, I will write about provisions for air pollution. I think preventive measures are very important to solving the air pollution problem more than cleaning the air or environment, because cleaning up the environment requires a lot of money. For example, the cost was 2.8 million dollars to clean the air at the port of Los Angeles. If we have to spend a lot of money to clean up just one confined area, we should improve the technology and we should consider how we don’t emit toxic gas using the money. First, the environment management system (EMS) was established at the port of Los Angeles in December 2003 (The Port Of Los Angeles, 2006) to solve the air pollution problem in this area. An EMS is the machine which tries to decrease negative effects on the environment. This is still an experimental device but if this system works, the pollution of the port will be surely able to be improved. Second, The Port of Los Angeles has been exploiting the “Air Quality Monitoring Program” since early 2004. It focuses on the matter of emission levels from around the port. This program indicates to the exact sources like ships or factories, operate on how to without polluting the air and what they should do. Third, I think the following Japanese technology can be applied to solve air pollution in California, so I would like to introduce the technology. We have a serious air pollution problem in Tokyo, also. Scientists have developed new technologies to reduce the harmful emissions and greenhouse gases. Then, they exploited fuel cell-powered cars and busses. It was successful. The Tokyo metropolitan government built a station for supplying hydrogen in 2002, and the fuel cell-powered bus has been used from 2003 to 2004 in Tokyo. The bus was driven and carried many people in Tokyo for two years (Tokyo Metropolitan Government, 2005). The car uses just hydrogen power, so the emission is just water and the energy efficiency is much better than the car which uses the petrol engine or the diesel engine. Therefore, the car is really good for the environment. If these cars are produced, CO2 levels would decrease by close to 30% in Tokyo. Also, the bus was used in the 2005 world exposition in Aichi, Japan, and it was used by a lot of people who came from all over the world (IBM Japan, 2005). If we can use this technology for factories or power plants, we will be able to reduce toxic gas considerably.

In conclusion, the environment has been certainly destroyed with these improvements. Therefore, we need to consider this serious air pollution problem and procedures in place. We need to improve the air pollution and we have to consider air pollution problem as the serious problem extremely, and we need to be conscious that we always pollute the atmosphere and our body and environment is always damaged by our own behavior. We know the cause of air pollution, so I hope we can find the best way to improve this problem as soon as possible. I hope we can get the beautiful Earth back again.


Bibliography:

Coalition for Clean Air Headquarters. (2006). Clean Air. June 15, 2006, from http://www.coalitionforcleanair.org/index.html

Danelski, D. (2006, January 20). Survey: Inland Air NationÅfs Dirtiest. Retrieved from Lexis Nexis database. May 31, 2006.

IBM Japan, Ltd. (2005). EXPO 2005, Aichi, Japan. Retrieved on May 1, 2006, from
http://www.expo2005.or.jp/en/index.html

Los Angeles Government. (2006). Zero Air Pollution, Retrieved on June 15, 2006, from http://www.zapla.org/health/h1.html

Physicians for Social Responsibility Los Angeles. (2005). Air Quality and Health. Retrieved on June 15, 2006, from http://www.psrla.org/env_air_pollution.htm

Prichard,J. (2005, December 13). Study: Air pollution health risk high in many Mich. Neighborhoods. Retrieved from Lexis Nexis database. June 5, 2006.

Tokyo Metropolitan Government. (2005). Stop Global Warming! Tokyo Strategy. Retrieved on April 18, 2006, from http://www2.kankyo.metro.tokyo.jp/sgw/English/index_en.htm

Wikipedia. (2006). Air pollution. Retrieved on June 15, 2006, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_pollution#Sources

Monday, June 12, 2006

Air Pollution (Argument Essay)

I'm interested in the air pollution problem in Los Angeles, CA, because we have a lot of problems caused by air pollution. Presently, there are many other environmental problems in the world, for example, global warming, desertification, ozone depletion, etc. Air pollution however, remains as one of the biggest environmental problems throughout the world. It can be the cause of disease like cancer or environmental problems like global warming. Actually, human products, from factories, vehicles and buildings, produce exhaust fumes and also produce microscopic particles which are known causes of diseases like cancer, heart disease, pneumonia and premature death (Danelski, 2006). We have to consider the air pollutants, and we need to improve the emission control systems of factories that emit the gas that produces air pollution to solve the problem. According to Gwen Williams, an exponent of Muskegon Family Care, patients who develop respiratory disease are really high around these factories, not only the people who live near the factories but also the people who live far from the factories (Prichard, 2005). This is proof that the gas of air pollutant is easily spread. Nowadays, our air has become polluted as we have developed our technologies to make our lives more convenient. Surely, living standards of our lives have improved and are much better than during the past. However, the environment has been certainly destroyed with these improvements. Therefore we need to improve the air pollution problem and we have to consider air pollution as an extremely serious problem.

First, I need to introduce the present condition of the environment caused by air pollution. According to the website, Zero Air Pollution, the people who live in Los Angeles don't care about neighboring activities, until they notice that they are in trouble or in a terrible situation. There are considerable damages to our health or to the environment of the Earth, so we have to understand the problem more to improve the air pollution problem in the future. In Los Angeles, the patients who have respiratory diseases, such as lung cancer and asthma, are increasing. Also, the toxic gas can be related to diseases which do not seem to be connected, like heart disease. Breathing emissions makes our life expectancy shorter (Coaltion for Clean Air Headquarters, 2006). There are a lot of negaive effects due to air pollution, so I will talk about them in my research paper.

Second, I will discuss the causes of air pollution. Of course, vehicles are one of the biggest causes of air pollution, but there are also other causes. First, factories are one of the biggest causes of air pollution. The emission from factories is easily spread out to neighbors and the toxic gas floats in the atmosphere for a long time (Zero Air Pollution Los Angeles, 2003). Second, power plants are also air pollutant sources. These plants burn massive natural resources, such as oil, coal and wood, and they emit carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide as secondary products of combustion (Wikipedia, 2006).

Third, I will write about provisions for air pollution. I think preventive measures are very important to solving the air pollution problem more than cleaning the air or environment. Because cleaning up the environment requires a lot of money, we should improve the technology and we should consider how to reduce the toxic gas from vehicles, factories and power plants, etc. In Los Angeles, the environment management system (EMS) was established at the port of Los Angeles in December 2003 (The Port Of Los Angeles, 2006). An EMS is a machine which tries to decrease negative effects on the environment. I think Japanese technology can be applied to solve air pollution in Calfornia, so I will write about it in my research paper.

In conclusion, the environment has been certainly destroyed with these improvements. Therefore, we need to consider this serious problem and do preventive measures. We need to improve the air pollution problem and we have to consider air pollution as an extremely serious problem. We know the cause of air pollution, so I hope we can find the best way to improve this problem as soon as possible, and we can get the beautiful Earth back again.


Reference:

Coalition for Clean Air Headquarters. (2006). Clean Air. June 15, 2006, from http://www.coalitionforcleanair.org/index.html

Danelski, D. (2006, January 20). Survey: Inland Air NationÅfs Dirtiest. Retrieved from Lexis Nexis database. May 31, 2006.

Los Angeles Government. (2006). Zero Air Pollution, Retrieved on June 15, 2006, from http://www.zapla.org/health/h1.html

Physicians for Social Responsibility Los Angeles. (2005). Air Quality and Health. Retrieved on June 15, 2006, from http://www.psrla.org/env_air_pollution.htm

Prichard,J. (2005, December 13). Study: Air pollution health risk high in many Mich. Neighborhoods. Retrieved from Lexis Nexis database. June 5, 2006.

Air Pollution (Research Paper Proposal)

I'm interested in the air pollution problem in Los Angeles, CA, because we have a lot of problems caused by air pollution. Presently, there are many other environmental problems in the world, for example, global warming, desertification, ozone depletion, etc. Air pollution remains as one of the biggest environmental problems, throughout the world. It can be the cause of disease like cancer or environmental problems like global warming. Actually, the human products, such as factories, vehicles and buildings produce exhaust fumes and also produce microscopic particles which are known causes of diseases like cancer, heart disease, pneumonia and premature death (Danelski, 2006). We have to consider about the air pollutant gas, and we need to improve the emission control systems of factories that emit the gas that produces air pollution to solve the problem. According to Gwen Williams, an exponent of Muskegon Family Care, patients who develop respiratory disease are really high around these factories, not only the people who live near the factories but also the people who live far from the factories (Prichard, 2005). This is proof that the gas of air pollutant is easily spread. Nowadays, our air has become polluted air as we developed our technologies to make our lives more convenient. Surely, living standards of our lives have improved and have been much better than during the past. However, the environment has been certainly destroyed with these improvements. Therefore we need to improve the air pollution problem and we have to consider air pollution as the serious problem extremely.

I'm planning to write about the following things. First, I will talk about the present condition of the environment caused by air pollution. There are considerable damages to our health and the environment of the Earth. Second, I will discuss the causes of air pollution. Of course, vehicles are one of the biggest causes of air pollution, but there are also other causes. Third, I will write about provisions for air pollution. I think preventive measure is very important to solving the air pollution problem more than cleaning the air or environment.

I have found some good information which I want to write from articles, but I need to research more. I'll try to find and get some information which I need and prepare for the research paper.


Reference:

Danelski, D. (2006, January 20). Survey: Inland Air NationÅfs Dirtiest. Retrieved from Lexis Nexis database. May 31, 2006.

Prichard,J. (2005, December 13). Study: Air pollution health risk high in many Mich. Neighborhoods. Retrieved from Lexis Nexis database. June 5, 2006.

Wednesday, June 07, 2006

Air pollution due to factories

The author, James Prichard, states the following issues in "Study: Air pollution health risk high in many Mich. Neighborhoods." Presently, a lot of huge old factories, such as gray iron foundries, have been closed down. However, there are still many factories and these factories have a bad influence on our health. The people who live near huge factories hane a high risk of disease of the respiratory organs because of the emission from the factories. According to Gwen Willams, the patients who develop respiratory disease are really high around these factories, not only the people who live near the factories but also the people who live far from the factories. The gas of air pollutants is easily spread, so we need to be concerned about this fact.

We have to consider the air pollutant gas, and we need to improve the emission control systems of factories that emit the gas that producese to air pollution. Nowadays, our air has become polluted air as we developed our technology to make our lives more convenient. Surely, living standards have improved and has been much better than in the past. However, the environment has been certanly destroyed. Therefore, we need to do preventive measure for the air pollution problem.

I think if we can apply the technology to solve the air pollution problems of the automobile to the problem of factories, the air pollution problem will be improved. In Japan, the exploitation of the fuel cell-powered car has been developed. This car uses just hydro power, so the emission is just water, not toxic gas. Also, the energy efficiency is much better than the car which uses gasoline or diesel fuels. Therefore, the car is really good for our health and the environment. Actually, the bus has been used by a lot of people from 2003 to 2004 in Tokyo and in the 2005 world exposition in Aichi, Japan. Therefore, if we can use this technology for factories, air pollution problem will be much better even though there are some problems, such as cost, technology, research, etc.

In conclusion, we have been destroyed the environment of the Earth. Air pollution is one of the most serious problems. Therefore, we need to consider about this serious problem and do preventive measure. We know the cause of air pollution, so I hope we can find the best way to improve this problem as soon as possible, and we can get the beautiful Earth back again.

Reference:
Prichard, J. (2005, December 13). Study: Air pollution health risk high in many Mich. Neighborhoods. Retrieved from Lexis Nexis database. June 5, 2006.

Thursday, June 01, 2006

Air Pollution

The author, David Danelski, explains the damage caused by air pollution and preventive measure for air pollution in “ Survey: Inland Air Nation’s Dirtiest.” Nowadays, air pollution has become worse particularly in urban cities and ports, such as Los Angeles, as we have developed our technologies. Factories, power plants and vehicles which produce exhaust fumes also produce microscopic particles which are cause of diseases like cancer, heart disease, pneumonia and premature death. As the result of air pollution, the government began to do priventive measure for air pollution problem. However, the cost is very high, so we can’t clean up every part. We need to improve our technology, and also we need to handle port activity.

We need to solve the air pollution problem as soon as possible. Nowadays, environmental problems are serious problems in the world. Air pollution is one of the biggest environmental problems. Tokyo is another city which needs some preventive measure for the environmental problem. Air pollution in Tokyo affects not only human health of those people who live in Tokyo, but also the ecosystem and other people who don’t live in Tokyo. There are some dead trees because of microscopic particles from factories and the rate which asthma is increasing rapidly for a few years. The area whose air has the particles thickly have been spreading around Tokyo.

In conclusion, the air pollution problem today is really serious throughout the world. If we don’t do anything to improve air pollution, we won’t be able to live on the Earth. We know what the cause of air pollution is. We have developed technology fairly, I hope we will find the solution of this problem in the near future, and we can get the beautiful and comfortable Earth back again.
Reference:
Danelski, D. (2006, January 20). Survey: Inland Air Nation’s Dirtiest. Retrieved from Lexis Nexis Database. May 31, 2006.

Thursday, May 25, 2006

Air Pollution and Cancer

The author explained the relationship between air pollution and cancer in the article, "LA Air Pollution Doubles Chance of Cancer." Nowadays, the air pollution is a serious problem in Los Angeles. The gas from vehicles or factories is connected to cancer. Especially, the risk to those people who breathe gas in the air when they were children will become cancer at adulthood with higher level. Therefore, there are some measures, such as adjusting poisonous air, making energy efficiency car, etc. We need to solve this problem as soon as possible for my health.

I agree with this author. Today, there are many environmental problems in the world, for example, global warming, desertification, ozone depletion, etc. Of the various environmental problems, I think air pollution is one of the most serious problems. It can be the causes of many diseases or environmental problems like cancer, global warming, etc. Therefore, we have to solve the air pollution problem. I know some solutions for the air pollution problem, so I would like to introduce them.

In Japan, the exploitation of the fuel cell-powered car has been developed. This car uses just hydro power, so the emission is just water, not toxic gas. Also, the energy efficiency is much better than the car which uses the gasoline engine. Therefore, the car is really good for our health and the environment. Actually, the bus has been used by a lot of people from 2003 to 2004 in Tokyo and in the 2005 world exposition in Aichi, Japan. I think if this car is published, the patients of cancer will decrease considerably.

In conclusion, we have developed our technology to make our life convenient. Certainly, our life became convenient, but we also destroy the environment and environmental problems trouble us. We should continue to develop our technology, but we have to take care of the environment of the Earth, also. I hope we can solve the environmental problems as soon as possible and can get the beautiful and comfortable Earth again.

Monday, May 08, 2006

Ocean’s Problem

We have caught living things from the ocean for a long time, and we have enjoyed eating them, such as fish, shellfish and seaweed all over the world. According to Walter H. Corson (1999, p. 136), “The world fish catch is approaching the annual total -- 100 million metric tons.” Japan is one of the countries which depend on marine products. There are many kind of delicious foods which use marine products, for example, sushi, sashimi and negitoro. However, these days, the sea products are confronting dangers as the new technology has been developed.

I like the foods which use marine products, and I often eat the delicious foods, so I can’t believe that we won’t be able to eat them. However, some researchers said the marine products which we can eat will decrease in the future. There are some causes of this problem, and we have to solve them to eat fresh marine products for a long time.

First, we need to reconsider our new technology. If we don’t do that, we won’t be able to eat some marine products. According to Peter Weber (2002, p. 47), “ Pollution poisons or causes disease in coastal marine life. Fat-soluble toxicants bioaccumulate in predators.” Recently, we have developed the technology for all fields, industry, agriculture, etc. then, we have polluted the environment of the Earth. Ocean is one of them. Therefore, we need to think about our new technology.

Second, we have to protect the water of the seaside. We are catching 50% of the sea products within 200 miles from land (Weber, 2002), so if we don’t do anything for this area, the products which live there will die. This means we won’t be able to get 50% of the marine products. Also, today, we have a problem-increasing population rapidly (Weber, 2002), so we can expect a lack of foods in the future.

Finally, we have been catching marine products excessively. Actually, whales are decreasing rapidly (Corson, 1999). I think if we continue to catch too much fish and whales, the ecosystem will change and some marine products will die out. Therefore, we have to plan how much of these products are caught.

In conclusion, nowadays, we depend on the marine products in field of food. However, it has been decreased by human behavior. There are some causes of this problem, so we have to solve those causes to eat marine products. I hope we will solve those problems, and we can eat delicious food from the ocean for the ocean forever.

Reference:

Corson, W. H. (1999). Ocean and coastal resources. In The Global Ecology Handbook. San Francisco, CA: Golden Book.

Weber, P. (2002). Safeguarding oceans. In Brown, L. (ed.) State of the World. New York, NY: Harper Books.

Sunday, May 07, 2006

What should we do to solve the changing weather patterns in Arctic? (Abstract)

The relationship between the changing weather patterns in Arctic and global warming, which is the most serious environmental problem, is strong. Therefore, we need to stop global warming to solve the changing weather patterns in Arctic. There are various measures to stop global warming in the world, and I think Japan is one of the countries which has been doing well in measures for global warming, so I introduce Japanese provisions for global warming in my essay, especially about CO2, energy and new technology.

What should we do to solve the changing weather patterns in Arctic?

I'm interested in the changing weather pattern in the Arctic, because the relationship between weather patterns of Arctic and global warming, which is the most serious environmental problem which we should solve first and foremost, is really strong. Today there are many environmental problems on the earth, for example, global warming, deforestation, desertification, ozone depletion, and acid rain, which are being noticed in the world. Among those problems, I think global warming is the most serious problem because global warming can be the cause of many environmental problems. According to Michael Harris (2005) and Tim Appenzeller (2000), today, weather patterns have been changing in the Arctic. Arctic ice has been melting suddenly and the temperature is increasing there. This fact is the cause of speeding up global warming, dying out of some animals, changing ecosystem, and changing weather pattern of the world. The environment or weather of the Arctic is one of the most important keys to solving environmental problems. Also, in Japan, we had much snow unnaturally this winter. And there were a lot of accidents, some people died, some houses were broken, and also traffic jams were a serious problem because of snow. I heard this problem affected commerce excessively. Generally speaking, the cause of the extraordinary amount of snow is global warming. Thus, the biggest cause of the changing weather pattern is global warming. Therefore, we have to solve the global warming problem to solve the changing weather pattern problem.

The relationship between the changing weather pattern in Arctic and global warming is strong. We need to do some things to solve this serious problem. Today, there are various measures to stop global warming in the world and these things are executed by each country, especially MDCs (More Developed Countries), so we should combine the ideas of provisions for global warming of each country, and I wonder if we can find the best way to restrain global warming. Therefore, I would like to introduce the provisions for global warming in Japan, especially in Tokyo, which is one of the cities that are the biggest causes of global warming. I think Japan is one of the countries which has been taking good measures for global warming.

First, we need to consider CO2, which is the biggest cause of global warming, which is the direct cause of changing weather pattern of Arctic. Japan is the fourth leading emitter of CO2 in the world, and Tokyo is the leading prefecture which exhausts CO2 in Japan. Therefore, the Tokyo metropolitan government has been taking some measures for CO2 in Tokyo.

The first is that government obliged office buildings and other large sources of CO2 to reduce emission of greenhouse gas. In Tokyo, 40% of emissions are from commercial sources, and it has been increased by 19% for ten years (1990 ~ 2000), so this is the most serious problem in Tokyo. The government emphasized that the tax for environmental funds depends on how much exhaust each company emits. After this, the companies cooperated with the government and wrestled with this problem more, because they needed to demonstrate the amount of emissions for the government (Tokyo Metropolitan Government, 2005a).

The second is that the government is doing some things to reduce CO2 from transportation (Tokyo Metropolitan Government, 2005a). This is about 35% of emissions in Tokyo. Today, our transportation systems have been developed and become convenient as the technology has been improved, and we use them more and more, so the rate of CO2 has increased has become by about 20% from vehicles from 1990 to 2000, even though the gas mileage of vehicles has become much better. Therefore, the government has strengthened the “Automobile Environmental Management System”, and they teach “eco-driving” to companies which emit too much CO2 or something like that, and they are trying to reduce vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT) and idling. Also, they strengthen “transportation demand management (TDM)”, and they are promoting the use of public transportation systems like trains and buses for consumers. Those provisions will combine to decrease the consumption of energy.

Second, using energy is the one of the causes of global warming, so I will introduce how we reduce energy in Tokyo. In Tokyo, there are many huge buildings which were built in the 1970s when the economy was improved rapidly. The buildings are one of the big causes of waste of energy and emission of CO2, because this period was before the technology had been developed enough, and those buildings became old, so the buildings will need to be replaced. Therefore, today, this period is a unique opportunity, so the government is executing the “Green Building Program.” They obliged new buildings to put in high technology provisions for CO2 like the solar system, even if it is expensive, and they aim to make Tokyo a large-scale energy-saving city (Tokyo Metropolitan Government, 2005a).

The second is that they promote changing the energy sources to renewable. Tokyo depends on other cities for 95% of its electric power, so it is necessary to make it an environment-friendly city (Tokyo Metropolitan Government, 2005a). In 2003 the government was influenced by Europe and placed two large wind turbines in Tokyo bay. This became the symbol of resolution for solving environmental problems and saving energy in Tokyo. Actually, this symbol really influenced our mind, so this was a very meaningful event for us even though these wind turbines can’t make much energy. Europe’s wind technology is much better than Japanese, so I think if we can cooperate with them and can develop the wind energy system, the symbol will become more effective. Also, the government constructed a “hydro station” for fuel-cell cars near the wind turbines.

In addition, the government thought that it is an important thing to provide the information about energy efficiency to us, consumers, in order to save energy, so they made the organization for the relationship between producers and consumers (Tokyo Metropolitan Government, 2005a,b). Nowadays, exhaust of CO2 and amount of use of electric power is increasing from residential sources because of the increase in the number of households, swelling up of electrical machines, and increasing a lot of functions of machines, such as air conditioner, refrigerator, TV, etc. Therefore, the government implemented effective systems and campaigns with dealers in order to guide consumers to choose an energy saving machine. They made a label as an emblem of their effort for energy efficiency in Tokyo. Thanks to this label we can understand what the machine’s advantage is and choose easily, and improve our consciousness for energy efficiency. Thus, the government began to consider and act for energy conservation.

Third, the Tokyo metropolitan government built the station for supplying hydro in 2002, and the fuel cell-powered bus has been used from 2003 to 2004 in Tokyo, and the bus was driven and carried many people in Tokyo for two years (Tokyo Metropolitan Government, 2005a). Scientists have developed new technology to reduce greenhouse gas. They exploited a fuel cell-powered car. It was success. This car uses just hydro power, so there are many advantages. The emission is just water, it doesn’t make noise, and the energy efficiency is much better than the car which uses the petrol engine or the diesel engine. Therefore, the car is really good for the environment. If the cars are produced, CO2 level will be decreased by close to 30% in Tokyo. Also, the bus was used in the 2005 world exposition in Aichi, Japan, and it was used by a lot of people who came from all over the world (IBM Japan, 2005). In addition, Honda, which is one of the most famous automobile companies from Japan, has developed fuel cell-power car to produce in the world. Actually, the car was introduced on November, 2004 in New York (JHFC, 2006). The fuel cell-power car has many advantages; however, it has disadvantages, also. The cost has been a problem. We need much money to transfer from the petrol engine or the diesel engine car to the fuel cell-power car; also we need to construct hydrogen stations all over the place like gas stations. If it will be improved, we can dissolve the CO2 problem considerably.

In conclusion, the relationship between the changing weather pattern and global warming is strong. We need to solve these problems to live in the future. There are many measures like the example of Tokyo or new Japanese technology which I gave. We have excellent technology and idea to solve and stop global warming. We need to cooperate and improve the environment of the earth. I hope we will find the best way to solve those problems as soon as possible and we will get a beautiful Earth again.

Bibliography:

Appenzeller, T. (2000, August 28). Plying a fabled waterway. U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved on April 03, 2006 from EBSCO.

Gaughen, S. (2005). Global Warming. Thomson Gale, a part of The Thomson Corporation.

IBM Japan, Ltd. (2005). EXPO 2005, Aichi, Japan. Retrieved on May 1, 2006, from
http://www.expo2005.or.jp/en/index.html

Harris, M. (2005, September 30). It all boils down to water. Toronto Sun. Retrieved on March 30, 2006 from, Lexis Nexis.

Hassol, S. (2004). Impacts of a Warming Arctic. Cambridge, U.K.; New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press.

JHFC (Japan Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Demonstration Project). (2006). Hydrogen & Fuel cell Demonstration Project. Retreved on May 1, 2006, from
http://www.jhfc.jp/e/column/front/03/01.html

Tokyo Metropolitan Government. (2005a). Stop Global Warming! Tokyo Strategy. Retrieved on April 18, 2006, from http://www2.kankyo.metro.tokyo.jp/sgw/English/index_en.htm

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